“There is a false side and a right side [for these issues]. There is a “world is flat” and a “world is not flat” … Article 6 has the ability to proactively undermine action against climate change in a way that is not another part of the Paris Agreement. The Paris Agreement is the world`s first comprehensive climate agreement.  Although the agreement has been welcomed by many, including French President Francois Hollande and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, criticism has also emerged. James Hansen, a former NASA scientist and climate change expert, expressed anger that most of the agreement is made up of “promises” or goals, not firm commitments.  He called the Paris talks a fraud with “nothing, only promises” and believed that only a generalized tax on CO2 emissions, which is not part of the Paris agreement, would force CO2 emissions down fast enough to avoid the worst effects of global warming.  In Katowice, the proceeds of the draft Article 6.2 rules have not been resolved, suggesting that this was one of the most controversial topics in the negotiations. Since then, a longer list of options has been reintroduced in the most recent text. The report comes when President Donald Trump officially began the process of withdrawing the U.S. from the agreement and lifting the U.S. commitment.
Even this commitment – reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 26 to 28% by 2025 from 2005 levels – was not brave enough, say the authors. In addition, countries are working to reach “the global peak in greenhouse gas emissions” as soon as possible. The agreement has been described as an incentive and engine for the sale of fossil fuels.   This underscores a reason for disagreement in Article 6.4, namely that CDM hosts were not pursuing their own Kyoto emission reduction targets, meaning that economies cannot be “counted twice” towards more than one target. Therefore, there is disagreement as to whether – and if so, how – the many methods to stem the Kyoto era, projects and emission credits should be included in the Article 6.4 market. Adaptation issues were at the forefront of the paris agreement. Collective long-term adaptation objectives are included in the agreement and countries must be accountable for their adaptation measures, making adaptation a parallel element of the mitigation agreement.  Adaptation objectives focus on improving adaptive capacity, resilience and vulnerability limitation.  Although mitigation and adjustment require increased climate funding, adjustment has generally received less support and has mobilized less private sector action.  A 2014 OECD report showed that in 2014, only 16% of the world`s financial resources were devoted to adaptation to climate change.  The Paris Agreement called for a balance between climate finance between adaptation and mitigation, highlighting in particular the need to strengthen support for adaptation from the parties most affected by climate change, including least developed countries and small island developing states.